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Trillium Enthusiast Discussion List (and other Woodland pl= Trillium Enthusiast Discussion List (and other Woodland pl=
Thu May 17 23:17:23 CEST 2007


ants)"  <TRILLIUM-L at NIC.SURFNET.NL> <TRILLIUM-L at NIC.SURFNET.NL>
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From: Fern Hill <fernhill at VOICENET.COM>
Subject: Re: Double Trillium grandiflorums
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Doubling in day lilies seems to result from conversion of stamens into =
petals. The same thing happens in some double rue anemones - notably the ==
"green Dragon" form.  

This is not the case in any of the double trilliums I have seen.  In =
trillium the mechanism seems to be iteration of the petal whorl.  Flower ==
development never reaches the sexual stage.  

There are "doubles" that are fertile, but these have the aspect of =
single flowers where everything in multiplied by 5.  This form is =
probably an unstable sport that results from failure of the vascular =
bundles to make the proper connections between each other just before =
they emerge from the stem.  Since there are 5 major veins in each leaf =
and, I believe in each sepal and petal too,  such connective failure can ==
result in multiplication of all visible parts by 5.

The dilliums and quadrilliums probably arise in the vasculature too.  =
The juvenile state of the vascular system is "diarch", i.e. the xylem =
has 2 "growing" points.  The mature state is triarchic - 3 "growing" =
points and the quadrillium, I suspect, has 4 such points. Although I =
think the dillium may be a stable form, the quadrillium does not seem to ==
be.  Higher than 4 whorl parts are rare and, I suspect arise from the =
similar vascular changes.  I have seen no published studies of this, but ==
the hypothesis is certainly easily tested - if material is available for ==
study.

John Gyer  Clarksburg  NJ  USA



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<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML><HEAD>
<META http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; =
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<META content="MSHTML 6.00.6000.16441" name=GENERATOR>
<STYLE></STYLE>
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<BODY bgColor=#ffffff>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2>Doubling in day lilies seems to resu=lt =
from 
conversion of stamens into petals. The same thing happens in some double ==
rue 
anemones - notably the "green Dragon" form.&nbsp; </FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2>This is not the case in any of the =
double trilliums 
I have seen.&nbsp; In trillium the mechanism seems to be iteration of =
the petal 
whorl.&nbsp; Flower development never reaches the sexual stage.&nbsp;=2=0
</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2>There are "doubles" that are fertile=, =
but these 
have the aspect of single flowers where everything in multiplied by =
5.&nbsp; 
This form is probably an unstable sport that results from failure of the ==

vascular bundles to make the proper connections between each other just =
before 
they emerge from the stem.&nbsp; Since there are 5 major veins in each =
leaf and, 
I believe in each sepal and petal too,&nbsp; such connective failure can ==
result 
in multiplication of all visible parts by 5.</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2>The dilliums and quadrilliums probab=ly =
arise in the 
vasculature too.&nbsp; The juvenile state of the vascular system is =
"diarch", 
i.e. the xylem has 2 "growing" points.&nbsp; The mature state is =
triarchic - 3 
"growing" points and the quadrillium, I suspect, has 4 such points. =
Although I 
think the dillium may be a stable form, the quadrillium does not seem to ==

be.&nbsp; Higher than 4 whorl parts are rare and, I suspect arise from =
the 
similar vascular changes.&nbsp; I have seen no published studies of =
this, but 
the hypothesis is certainly easily tested - if material is available for ==

study.</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2>John Gyer&nbsp; Clarksburg&nbsp; =
NJ&nbsp; 
USA</FONT></DIV>
<DIV>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face=Arial size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV></BODY></HTML>
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<p>
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<p>
View Trillium and Woodland Plant section of the FloraPix Gallery
http://florapix.nl/trillium-L
<p>
To change your Trillium-L subscription options (includes joining or
leaving the list and "no-mail" for vacations and holidays away
from your computer)you may go to the Trillium-L archives and select the
link *Join or Leave this list*. (You can modify there also.)
<p>
For help with this list, send an e-mail to the listowners at:
Trillium-L-request at nic.surfnet.nl
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<p>

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